Limnology is the study of fresh or saline water, which includes lakes, ponds, reservoirs, streams, rivers, and seas, among other aquatic environments. It is an interdisciplinary discipline that studies inland waterways as complex ecological systems by combining biology, chemistry, physics, and geology. Aquatic ecology and hydrobiology, which study aquatic animals and their interactions with the abiotic (non-living) environment, are closely related to limnology. Limnology is the science of integrating the physical, chemical, and biological components of inland aquatic ecosystems with the drainage basin, water movements through the drainage basin, biogeochemical changes that occur en route, and exchanges with the atmosphere. Formation of lakes