The study of the processes that shape the Earth's surface, the animals and plants that live there, and the spatial patterns they exhibit is known as physical geography. Physical geography focuses on the Earth's land-surface and envelope, emphasizing the geographical differences that occur as well as the temporal changes that are required to comprehend the Earth's current environments. Its goal is to figure out how the physical environment of the Earth affects and is changed by human activity. Physical geography is split into geomorphology, climatology, hydrology, and biogeography. It develops research that impact environmental management and design, drawing on skills in mathematical and statistical modeling as well as remote sensing.
- Soil geography and Paleogeography
- Coastal geography and Oceanography
- Quaternary science
- Landscape ecology
- Environmental geography