Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

A long-term shift in global or regional climate patterns is referred to as climate change. Climate change now encompasses both human-caused global warming and its effects on Earth's weather patterns. Emissions of greenhouse gases, mostly carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane, are the primary reason. The majority of these emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy. Additional sources include agriculture, steelmaking, cement production, and forest loss. These factors, taken together, accelerate global warming. Weather patterns may become less predictable as a result of climate change. Because projected temperature and rainfall levels can no longer be relied upon, these unpredictable weather patterns might make it difficult to maintain and develop crops in farming-dependent regions. Natural factors like as volcanic eruptions, ocean currents, Earth's orbital fluctuations, solar variations, and internal variability all impact and change the planet's temperature. Things we rely on and cherish, such as water, electricity, transportation, wildlife, agriculture, ecosystems, and human health, are all being impacted by climate change.


Research on agriculture and food Security aims to provide insight that can assist in developing more sustainable agriculture and food systems that can better solve local, regional, national, and/or global food and nutritional insecurity. Food security exists when all people have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to fulfill their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life at all times. Food security is determined by three factors: food availability, accessibility, and consumption. Household resources, discretionary income, and socioeconomic level all play a role in food security.


Atmospheric chemistry is a field of atmospheric science that studies the chemical reactions that take place within the Earth's atmosphere. It focuses on the composition of planetary atmospheres, as well as the reactions and interactions that power these complex and dynamic systems. Improved understanding of climatic forcing, air quality and reciprocal interactions between the atmosphere and biosphere necessitates more research in this field. Due to breakthroughs in fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemical processes, new innovations in both in situ and remote sensing measurement technology, and improved representations of important processes in numerical models, the subject is quickly evolving.


The term "biodiversity" is a contraction of "biological diversity," and it refers to all organisms, species, and populations, as well as their genetic variety and complex assemblages of communities and ecosystems. It also refers to the interconnectedness of genes, species, and ecosystems, as well as the interactions between them and the environment. Genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity are usually considered at three levels of biodiversity. Biodiversity refers to the diversity of life on the planet. Each of these species and organisms work together in ecosystems to preserve balance and support life, much like an intricate web.


Biogeochemistry has evolved as a scientific study as we've realized that our current human effect on our world may disrupt the stable chemistry of our evolutionary environment, which is at least partially dictated by the diversity of organisms that share our planet with us. Biogeochemistry, in particular, is the study of biogeochemical cycles, which are the cycles of chemical elements like carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and integration into living things as they travel across earth scale biological systems in space and time. Chemical cycles that are either driven by or influence biological activity are the focus of this field.


The study of the Earth's structure, qualities, processes, and four and a half billion years of biotic development is known as Earth science. The terms "earth science" and "atmospheric science," "hydrology," and "oceanography" or "ocean sciences" are frequently used interchangeably. Understanding these occurrences is critical to the survival of life on Earth. The goal of this research domain is to improve our understanding of the Earth's changing environments and the natural distribution of mineral, water, biota, and energy resources, as well as to develop methods for predicting and mitigating the effects of geologic hazards like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, and landslides. Earth scientists' knowledge of the structure and chemical makeup of the earth's crust, as well as the services they provide, assist us in locating resources that sustain and improve quality of life.


Ecology is the study of the interactions between living organisms, such as humans, and their physical environment; it aims to comprehend the vital links that exist between plants and animals and the environment. Ecology also informs us about ecosystem advantages and how humans might use Earth's resources in ways that preserve the environment for future generations. Conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agro ecology, agriculture, forestry, agroforestry, fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic and applied science, and human social interaction are all examples of practical applications of ecology (human ecology). Ecosystems provide ecosystem services such as biomass production (food, fuel, fiber, and medicine), climate regulation, global biogeochemical cycles, water filtration, soil formation, erosion control, flood protection, and many other scientific, historical, economic, or intrinsically valuable natural features.


Environmental design is a new way of thinking about consumer items and industrial operations that is environmentally conscious, long-term, and beneficial to both humans and the environment. Environmental design also refers to the applied arts and sciences that deal with the creation of a human-designed environment. Architecture, geography, urban planning, landscape architecture, and interior design are among these fields. Environmental design has consequences for product industrial design in a broader sense: innovative autos, wind power generators, solar-powered equipment, and other types of equipment could be examples.


Environmental economics is a branch of economics that focuses on environmental concerns. Environmental economics differs from ecological economics in that it highlights the economy as a subsystem of the ecosystem with an emphasis on natural capital preservation. Environmental economics, in its broadest sense, studies how economic activity and policies affect the environment in which we live. It studies how environmental and natural resources are generated and managed using economic concepts. The costs and benefits of various policy solutions can be compared using a range of economic techniques. EPA is also conducting new research to improve approaches for calculating the economic impact of environmental outcomes. Environmental economists conduct research to determine the economic implications of environmental policy, both theoretically and empirically.


The study of the processes that influence the amount, composition, and distribution of chemical compounds and isotopes in geologic environments is known as geochemistry. This field of Earth Science uses chemical concepts to gain a better knowledge of the Earth's and other planets' systems. Geochemists believe that the Earth is made up of separate spheres – rocks, fluids, gases, and biological — that exchange mass and energy over time. The basis for studying the co-evolution of the solid Earth, its oceans, atmosphere, biosphere, and climate is an understanding of reaction rates and the spectrum of physical variables responsible for chemical expressions of each sphere. The study of chemical transformations of biological components in rocks, as well as the cyclic flow of individual elements (and their compounds) between living and nonliving systems are all part of modern geochemical research. Certain areas of geochemical research, such as the origin and relative abundance of elements in the solar system, the Milky Way Galaxy, and the universe as a whole; the chemical composition of meteorites; and the ages of terrestrial and lunar rocks, have become intertwined with cosmology since the 1960s.


Geology is the study of the Earth, its materials, the structure of those materials, and the processes that affect them. It encompasses the study of species that have lived on our planet in the past. The study of how Earth's materials, structures, processes, and species have changed over time is an essential element of geology. We can learn about how the Earth has evolved over time by examining rocks, geochemistry, and geobiology. We can also predict how the planet will alter in the future. Modern geology is considered a major component of Earth system science and planetary science as a whole. People are at risk from a variety of processes, including landslides, earthquakes, floods, and volcanic eruptions. Geologists strive to have a thorough understanding of these processes so that major structures are not built in potentially hazardous areas. Geologists perform research to find important metal-bearing rocks, plan mines to generate them, and devise means to extract the metals from the rocks. They find and produce oil, natural gas, and groundwater in a similar way.


The study of the physics of the Earth and its environs in space is known as geophysics. Geophysics is a key part of the Earth sciences that studies the Earth using physics principles and methods. The temperature distribution of the Earth's interior; the source, configuration, and changes of the geomagnetic field; and large-scale characteristics of the terrestrial crust, such as rifts, continental sutures, and mid-oceanic ridges, are all topics covered by geophysics. Modern geophysical research includes phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere's outer layers, as well as the physical attributes of other planets and their satellites. Geophysics is used to meet social needs such as mineral exploration, natural disaster mitigation, and environmental protection.


Glaciology is a scientific field that studies all aspects of ice on landmasses. It examines the structure and properties of glacier ice, as well as its production and distribution, ice flow dynamics, and ice accumulation-climate interactions. Glaciological study is carried out using a range of techniques. Radar sounding is used to study the internal structure of glaciers, and the deformation of vertical boreholes or lateral tunnels bored into the ice is used to monitor glacier movement. Remote sensing data is used to estimate ice accumulation over wide areas, and oxygen isotope ratios are typically used to distinguish the distinct annual layers in glacier ice.


Green energy refers to any form of energy that is produced from natural resources such as sunshine, wind, or water. Green energy is often derived from renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and hydroelectric power as a source of energy. Each of these technologies generates energy in a different way, whether it's through harnessing the sun's energy using solar panels, wind turbines, or the flow of water. Green energy is beneficial to the environment because it substitutes more ecologically friendly options for the negative consequences of fossil fuels. Natural sources of green energy include sun, wind, rain, tides, plants, algae, and geothermal heat. These energy resources are renewable, meaning they can be regenerated in the nature.


The "Hydrologic Cycle" is the continual movement of water between different regions of the globe (atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere). Hydrogeology is the study of how water behaves in a geological setting based on hydraulic rules. It includes shaft hydraulic, which is drilling for water for various uses and controlling environmental behaviour, depending on the type of drilled material. Both specialties combine regional and local geology knowledge, as well as superficial and subterranean information, to contribute to the most efficient use of groundwater for long-term development.


One of our most valuable natural resources is water. There would be no life on Earth without it. Hydrology developed as a science in response to the necessity to comprehend the earth's complicated water system and assist in the resolution of water issues. Hydrology is the study of the Earth's waters, including their occurrence, distribution, and movement through the hydrologic cycle, as well as their interactions with living beings. It also covers the chemical and physical properties of water in all of its forms. The study of the link between water and its surroundings is the major goal of hydrology. Hydrology focuses on precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and groundwater since it is primarily concerned with water near the land surface. A hydrologist is a person who studies water on Earth and how humans interact with and use it. Hydrologists rely on their knowledge of how water interacts with its surroundings, such as how it travels from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back.


Limnology is the study of fresh or saline water, which includes lakes, ponds, reservoirs, streams, rivers, and seas, among other aquatic environments. It is an interdisciplinary discipline that studies inland waterways as complex ecological systems by combining biology, chemistry, physics, and geology. Aquatic ecology and hydrobiology, which study aquatic animals and their interactions with the abiotic (non-living) environment, are closely related to limnology. Limnology is the science of integrating the physical, chemical, and biological components of inland aquatic ecosystems with the drainage basin, water movements through the drainage basin, biogeochemical changes that occur en route, and exchanges with the atmosphere. Formation of lakes


Meteorology is the branch of science that studies the atmosphere and its phenomena, such as weather and climate. Meteorology is concerned with the study of the troposphere and lower stratosphere in particular. Meteorology is the scientific study of weather and its causes, and it is used to forecast the weather. Meteorologists are commonly thought of as weather forecasters. They study maps, satellite data, and radar data to analyze the physical characteristics of the atmosphere above them. They also compare weather data from local, regional, and international sources. Marine weather forecasting, as it relates to maritime and coastal safety, is an important branch of weather forecasting, in which weather effects also involve atmospheric interactions with enormous bodies of water. The significance of meteorological research can be felt in a variety of ways.


Natural hazards are physical phenomena that occur in nature and might be geophysical, hydrological, climatological, meteorological, or biological in nature. Natural hazards occur on a variety of time and area scales, and each is distinct in some way. Such tragedies result in significant human and material losses, which constitute a severe impediment to long-term growth. Lives and property can be safeguarded by providing accurate predictions and warnings in an easily accessible format, as well as educating people on how to safeguard for these kinds of threats before they become disasters.


Oceanography is the study of the ocean's physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, as well as the ocean's ancient history, current state, and future. The function of oceanographers may be more vital now than it has ever been, as the ocean is endangered by climate change and pollution, coasts are crumbling, and entire species of marine life are on the verge of extinction. Biological oceanography is, in fact, one of the most important branches of oceanography today. It is the study of the plants and animals that live in the ocean, as well as their interactions with the marine environment. However, oceanography includes more than just research and study.


Paleontology is the study of prehistoric life, which includes dinosaurs as well as prehistoric plants, animals, fish, insects, fungi, and even bacteria. Fossil evidence indicates how organisms evolved over time and how our world looked in the past. Plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and single-celled organisms that have been replaced by rock material or impressions of species preserved in rock are known as fossils. Paleontologists study the remains of extinct and living species to learn more about them. Individual fossils may include information on the life and surroundings of an organism.


Petrology is the science of rocks, including igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, as well as the processes that shape and modify them. It's a branch of geology that focuses on chemical analysis in areas like petrography and mineralogy. Modern petrologists can determine the origins of rocks and their chemical features by combining numerous geophysical and geochemical approaches. Petrology is divided into three sections based on the primary rock types: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Petrology is crucial for determining the physical and chemical composition of rocks, as well as the various factors that impact their creation. Modern petrologists use mineralogy knowledge to aid in the mapping and sampling of rocks. Because most rocks are made up of minerals and developed under similar conditions, petrology significantly relies on mineralogy ideas and procedures.


The study of the processes that shape the Earth's surface, the animals and plants that live there, and the spatial patterns they exhibit is known as physical geography. Physical geography focuses on the Earth's land-surface and envelope, emphasizing the geographical differences that occur as well as the temporal changes that are required to comprehend the Earth's current environments. Its goal is to figure out how the physical environment of the Earth affects and is changed by human activity. Physical geography is split into geomorphology, climatology, hydrology, and biogeography. It develops research that impact environmental management and design, drawing on skills in mathematical and statistical modeling as well as remote sensing.


Plant science refers to a wide spectrum of study and scientific studies that look at the estimated 410,000 land plant species on the planet. Plant science is the study of how plants are utilised to provide food, change the environment, restore damaged landscapes, promote human health and well-being, improve communal surroundings, and provide recreational and practical benefits to the general public. Plant science and biotechnology offers opportunities in a wide range of disciplines that are essential to understanding plants and their interactions with other species, as well as opportunities to specialize in plant biotechnology.


The process of minimizing or eliminating the release of pollutants into the environment is known as pollution control. Pollution control is any of a number of techniques used to limit the environmental damage caused by the discharge of dangerous substances and energies. Waste disposal systems, such as sanitary landfills, automotive emission control systems, sewerage system sedimentation tanks, electrostatic precipitation of pollutants from industrial gas, and recycling are all examples of pollution control methods.


Waste materials are recycled, recovered, and reprocessed for use in new goods. The gathering of waste materials, their processing or production into new products, and the purchase of those items, which can then be recycled, is the basic processes in recycling. Internal and external recycling operations are the two main types of recycling operations. Internal recycling is the reuse of materials that are a waste product of a manufacturing process within that process.


The process of eliminating toxins from polluted places caused by industrial, manufacturing, mining, and commercial activity is known as remediation. From detection, investigation, assessment, determination of remedial measures, actual clean-up, and site rebuilding, remediation is an all-encompassing step process of land restoration. To lessen the environmental impact, dirty or contaminated soil, sediment, surface water, or groundwater is removed during remediation. Environmental remediation is carried out on soil, sediment, groundwater, and surface water, among other environmental media. The process of eliminating toxins from water is known as water remediation. Pollutants dumped directly into the water or drainage from the ground can contaminate surface water in lakes, streams, and rivers.


In contrast to in situ or on-site observation, remote sensing is the collecting of information about an object or phenomenon without making direct contact with it. The method of detecting and monitoring the physical features of a region by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation from a distance, usually via a satellite or aircraft, is known as remote sensing. Active and passive remote sensing are the two forms of remote sensing technology. Active sensors produce energy to scan objects and spaces, after which a sensor detects and measures the reflected or backscattered radiation from the target.


The term "renewable energy source" refers to energy that is both sustainable and infinite, such as the sun. When the word "alternative energy" is used, it usually refers to renewable energy sources as well. It refers to energy sources that are not as non-sustainable as the most regularly utilized non-sustainable sources, such as coal. Renewable energy comes from naturally renewing but flow-limited sources; renewable resources are nearly limitless in terms of length but have a finite amount of energy per unit of time. Renewable energy, often known as clean energy, is derived from natural sources or processes that are renewed on a regular basis.


The removal of contaminants from wastewater, or sewage, before it reaches aquifers or natural bodies of water such as rivers, lakes, estuaries, and seas is known as wastewater treatment. Because pure water does not exist outside of chemical laboratories, any differentiation between clean and contaminated water is based on the type and concentration of pollutants contained in the water, as well as its intended purpose. Water is said to be polluted in broad terms when it contains enough contaminants to make it inappropriate for a specific use, such as drinking, swimming, or fishing.


Soil is one of the most significant natural resources on the planet. Mineral soil is a mixture of organic materials, minerals, gases, and water that makes up the top layer of the Earth's crust. As erosion of the bedrock on the Earth's surface interacts with decomposing organic matter, soil emerges progressively over time. Soil often forms in layers (also known as horizons) that differ in colour and texture from one another. It has the potential to aid in the fight against and mitigation of climate change. It's also a diverse and complex ecosystem that supports a wide range of wildlife. As a result, the impact of soil on life is enormous. Soil performs a variety of tasks and services that would be impossible to achieve without it.


It can be defined as the collection, transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage, and other waste products in its most basic form. Waste management entails the treatment of both solid and liquid waste. It also provides a variety of options for recycling goods that aren't classified as garbage during the process. The processes and actions necessary to manage trash from its inception to its final disposal are referred to as waste management or waste disposal. This comprises waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal, as well as waste management process monitoring and control, as well as waste-related laws, technologies, and economic systems. Waste can be solid, liquid, or gaseous, with various disposal and management strategies for each. Industrial, biological, residential, municipal, organic, biomedical, and radioactive wastes are all dealt with via waste management. Waste can, in some situations, be harmful to human health.


Climate change is the most significant environmental issue humanity will confront in the coming decade. Climate change, which is triggered by a rise in global temperatures, causes an array of harmful impacts on earth, affecting the physical, biological, and human systems. Melting of the poles, glacial regression, snow melting, warming and thawing of permafrost, floods, droughts, and sea level rise are all examples of climate change effects on the planet's physical processes. Death of flora and fauna in terrestrial and marine ecosystems, as well as wildfires, are the most common occurrences in biological systems. Climate change has an impact on and damages crops and food production in human systems, which leads to diseases, mortality, and loss of economic livelihoods. Climate change, economic scarcity, and poverty are all linked in one way or another. The commitment to conserve natural resources and maintain global ecosystems in order to support health and quality of life today and in the future is known as environmental sustainability. Climate change is one of the most significant problems to environmental sustainability which raises development costs by 25 to 30 percent in the underdeveloped and developing countries.


Since the mid-twentieth century, human-caused greenhouse gases have been the most dominant driver of observed climate change.  The greenhouse effect describes how "greenhouse gases" trap heat at the Earth's surface. Greenhouse gases come from both natural and man-made sources.  Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, and water vapor are examples of greenhouse gases. The greenhouse effect allows life to exist on Earth. Without it, the average temperature on Earth's surface would be roughly -19°C, rather than the current 14°C. However, increasing greenhouse gas levels, on the other hand, causes significant climate changes such as floods, droughts, and heat. As greenhouse gas emissions from human activities increase, they build up in the atmosphere and warm the climate, leading to many other changes around the world—in the atmosphere, on land, and in the oceans.

The decay of buried carbon-based organisms that died millions of years ago produces fossil fuels. They produce carbon-rich deposits, which are mined and burned for energy. They are non-renewable and currently provide roughly 80% of global energy. Coal, oil, and gas are the three forms of fossil fuels. For decades, fossil fuels have provided energy to a wide range of human activities. Electricity generation, home heating, transportation fuel, and polymers are all examples of uses for fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels is the principal driver of contemporary climate change, which is disrupting Earth's ecosystems and posing health risks to humans and the environment. When fossil fuels are burned, massive volumes of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, are released into the atmosphere. Global warming is caused by greenhouse gases, which trap heat in our atmosphere. Coal is the single major contributor to global warming. Natural gas is frequently advertised as a more environmentally friendly energy source than coal and oil. It is, however, still a fossil fuel, accounting for a fifth of global carbon emissions. Fossil fuel emissions are the primary cause of global warming.


Land, like air and water, is a critical resource for humanity. Multiple factors contribute to land degradation, including harsh meteorological conditions, human activities that contaminate or damage the quality of soils and land utility. Most significant is climate change, it is a major contributor to land degradation. Climate change is expected to be a leading cause of biodiversity loss, accounting for around 10% of all human-induced greenhouse gas emissions. The well-being of at least 3.2 billion people is being harmed by land degradation caused by human activities. Land degradation and climate change will cut crop yields by an average of 10% globally by 2050, and by up to 50% in some places. Land degradation, particularly in developing nations, increases the number of people exposed to dangerous air, water, and land pollutants.

The greatest epidemics in history have wiped out practically whole civilizations, but the impact of an outbreak extends beyond death to include global economic collapse and climate disruption. Climate change is mostly the result of human activity on the planet. We can speculate that the global consequences of closing borders, bars, and schools, as well as travel restrictions and shelter in place orders, have benefited the earth. Mother Earth appears to be mending, at least for the time being, with the reduction of air pollutants and carbon emissions. Despite the positive decreases in carbon footprint, it is possible that the mitigation will only be temporary, medical and hazardous waste is currently being produced in large quantities by patients and healthcare personnel. COVID-19 added a new dimension to weather, climate, and water-related dangers, with far-reaching cumulative effects on human health and well-being.


Degrowth refers to a set of theories that challenge the economic growth paradigm.   Acknowledgement of our planet's limits, concomitant slowdown in resource extraction, production and consumption, are all part of the agenda. The goal of degrowth is to reduce our dependency on environmentally unsustainable extraction and manufacturing techniques, not necessarily to limit the size of our economy. Climate change challenges cannot be solved without addressing the world's rapidly rising human population, which leads to increased consumption and carbon emissions. The climate change, considered as the greatest concern, is being aggravated by increasing human population pressure, while it continues to impact the planet's inhabitants. De-growth, not only economically but also in terms of population, is the only way to combat climate change.


Kelp is a form of seaweed that is commonly farmed. It is a keystone organism;   this brown alga can be found in cold, coastal marine waters all around the world. Kelp forests can be found primarily throughout the Eastern Pacific Coast, from Alaska and Canada to the waters off the coast of California. It grows extremely fast, up to 2ft per day and requires no fertilizer or weeding. This abundant habitat supports a diverse range of fish, invertebrates, and marine mammals, forming the foundation of a diverse ecosystem. Kelps can be found in subtidal areas. Bull kelp is an annual species that dies and regrows every year, while giant kelp is a perennial species that survives for several years.