The study of the physics of the Earth and its environs in space is known as geophysics. Geophysics is a key part of the Earth sciences that studies the Earth using physics principles and methods. The temperature distribution of the Earth's interior; the source, configuration, and changes of the geomagnetic field; and large-scale characteristics of the terrestrial crust, such as rifts, continental sutures, and mid-oceanic ridges, are all topics covered by geophysics. Modern geophysical research includes phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere's outer layers, as well as the physical attributes of other planets and their satellites. Geophysics is used to meet social needs such as mineral exploration, natural disaster mitigation, and environmental protection.